Mesothelioma Tumor and Cell Types
Malignant mesothelioma cells are classified into three types: epithelioid, sarcomatoid, and biphasic, which are a combination of the two. A biphasic diagnosis requires at least 10 percent of each cell pattern be present in the tumors.
Epithelioid is the most common cell type and is found in 60 percent of malignant mesothelioma diagnoses, while sarcomatoid accounts for 25 percent. Biphasic tumors or those that have both epithelioid and sarcomatoid, make up only 15 percent of cases. Patients with epithelioid cell types often have a better prognosis than those diagnosed with sarcomatoid or biphasic tumors.
Epithelioid tumors develop in the organ lining, while sarcomatoid cells start growing within the bone or soft tissues of the body. Epithelioid tumors metastasize, or spread, more quickly than sarcomatoid cells, making them easier to treat. In the majority of cases, doctors will recommend multiple therapies, including chemotherapy and radiation, for patients fighting epithelioid mesothelioma.
Patients who receive a mesothelioma diagnosis would benefit from finding a hospital or doctor who specializes in their particular type of mesothelioma. A good prognosis depends on a team of experts who can develop a customized treatment plan based on the individual patient.
Mesothelioma is rare and, as patients learn more about their disease, it’s easy to feel overwhelmed. Keep in mind that statistics are just statistics and are based on past survival rates, patients, and individual circumstances. The point? Remain positive. Accepting a mesothelioma diagnosis doesn’t mean accepting a doctor’s prognosis. Some information on mesothelioma may often be old, or simply incorrect. Doctors and researchers are working to improve treatment options, and many patients far outlive their original prognosis.
How Are Mesothelioma Cell Types Diagnosed?
The only way to definitively diagnose mesothelioma is through a biopsy, a fluid or tissue sample extracted from the tumors. Once this procedure is complete, your doctor will consult with a histopathologist or a specialist who studies diseased cells. Together, they’ll examine the sample and determine which mesothelioma cell type is predominant. This information can help a medical team design the most effective treatment.
Doctors may also use an additional set of diagnostic tests, called immunohistochemistry, or IHC, to diagnose a patient’s mesothelioma cell type. IHC uses antibodies or matching molecules that attach to different cell markers, which are proteins that classify and identify cells. A histologist then adds specific enzymes to the section of diseased tissue to produce different colors. These color changes help doctors further visualize and identify various tissue abnormalities, and can lead to a more precise diagnosis.
Benign Mesothelioma Tumors
This condition is rare, but benign mesothelioma tumors can develop in the mesothelium, or lining of the lungs, heart, and abdomen. While these masses don’t spread as quickly as malignant tumors, but are still cause for concern. Patients who receive a benign mesothelioma diagnosis should still seek treatment as soon as possible.
Veterans with mesothelioma should ask a doctor about their specific cell type in order to receive the most effective course of treatment.